Official data in SubjectManager for the following academic year: 2022-2023

Course director

Number of hours/semester

Lectures: 14 hours

Practices: 0 hours

Seminars: 0 hours

Total of: 14 hours

Subject data

  • Code of subject: OPO-G1E-T
  • 1 Credit
  • Pharmacy
  • Med.-biol. theoretical module and practical skills module
  • autumn

OPO-G1G-T parallel

Exam course:

Course headcount limitations

min. 3 people – max. 100 people


Pharmacobotany covers all pharmaceutical aspects of botany, including cytology, histology and morphology of plants. Based on their anatomical and morphological knowledge, students will be able to identify and characterize medicinal plant species. The thorough knowledge of both general and specific pharmacobotany is a prerequisite of studying pharmacognosy.


  • 1. Structure of the plant cell. Plastids and inclusions. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 2. Structure of the cell wall. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 3. Plant tissues I. Meristematic tissues. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 4. Plant tissues II. Epidermal tissue; stomata, trichomes, secondary epidermis. - Dr. Kocsis Marianna
  • 5. Plant tissues III. Vascular tissues; vascular bundle types. - Dr. Kocsis Marianna
  • 6. Plant tissues IV. Ground tissues: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, secretory tissues. - Dr. Kocsis Marianna
  • 7. 1st written exam - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 8. Root morphology. Modified roots. Root anatomy - Dr. Filep Rita
  • 9. Shoot morphology and anatomy. Shoot types. - Dr. Filep Rita
  • 10. Leaf morphology and anatomy. Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis). Leaf venation. - Dr. Filep Rita
  • 11. Flower morphology. Inflorescence types. - Dr. Purger Dragica
  • 12. Fertilisation, embryogenesis, ovule and seed. Fruit types. - Dr. Purger Dragica
  • 13. 2nd written exam - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 14. Taxonomic categories, chemotaxonomic relations, rules of nomenclature. - Dr. Purger Dragica



Reading material

Obligatory literature

Á. Farkas: Pharmacobotany 1, University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2010

Literature developed by the Department

Farkas Á., Papp N., Bencsik T., Horváth Gy.: Digital Herbarium and Drug Atlas, electronic learning material, 2014 TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016


Recommended literature

D.F. Cutler, T. Botha, D.W. Stevenson: Plant Anatomy. An Applied Approach, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008
R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn: Esaus Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function and Development, 3rd edition, Wiley
A. Fahn: Plant Anatomy, 4th edition

Conditions for acceptance of the semester

Maximum of 25 % absence allowed

Mid-term exams

Students have to pass (min. 60%) two written exams based on lecture materials.
For each test, maximum two other chances (B and C chance) will be offered for students who do not pass the exam on the first occassion (A chance).

Making up for missed classes

Lecture materials can be downloaded from the website of the Department of Pharmacognosy (Educational Materials) and/or MS Teams.

Exam topics/questions

The criterion of admission to the exam is the successful completion of the practice carried out in paralell (midsemester grade with the result different from failed).

The grades of the 2 written lecture tests serve as the basis of the final course grade.

Exam topics:
1. Structure of the plant cell.
2. Plastids and inclusions.
3. Structure of the cell wall.
4. Meristematic tissues.
5. Epidermal tissue; stomata.
6. Trichomes, secondary epidermis.
7. Vascular tissues
8. Vascular bundle types.
9. Ground tissues: parenchyma, collenchyma.
10. Ground tissues: sclerenchyma, secretory tissues.
11. Root morphology and anatomy
12. Modified roots.
13. Shoot morphology and anatomy.
14. Shoot types.
15. Leaf morphology and anatomy.
16. Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis). Leaf venation.
17. Flower morphology.
18. Inflorescence types.
19. Fertilisation, embryogenesis, ovule and seed.
20. Fruit types: dehiscent fruits.
21. Fruit types: indehiscent fruits.
22. Fruit types: compound and aggregate fruits.


  • Dr. Farkas Ágnes

Instructor / tutor of practices and seminars