Official data in SubjectManager for the following academic year: 2022-2023

Course director

Number of hours/semester

Lectures: 14 hours

Practices: 14 hours

Seminars: 0 hours

Total of: 28 hours

Subject data

  • Code of subject: OPO-GN1-T
  • 2 Credit
  • Pharmacy
  • Med.-biol. theoretical module and practical skills module
  • autumn

OPR-LAT-T completed

Exam course:

Course headcount limitations

min. 3 people – max. 60 people


Pharmacobotany covers all pharmaceutical aspects of botany, including cytology, histology, morphology and taxonomy of plants. Plant systematics discusses the geographical origin of plant species, the possibilities of their cultivation and protection. A special emphasis is laid on chemotaxonomic aspects, since the medicinal effect of a plant is often related to its taxonomic classification and chemical characteristics. Practical instruction focuses on the knowledge of medicinal plants, including the confident use of plant identification keys. Based on their knowledge of morphology and histology students are required to apply proper anatomical terms, and finally identify plant species (taxa). The thorough knowledge of both general and specific pharmacobotany is a prerequisite of studying pharmacognosy.


  • 1. Structure of the plant cell. Plastids and inclusions. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 2. Structure of the cell wall. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 3. Plant tissues I. Meristematic tissues. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 4. Plant tissues II. Epidermal tissue; stomata, trichomes, secondary epidermis. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 5. Plant tissues III. Vascular tissues; vascular bundle types. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 6. Plant tissues IV. Ground tissues: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, secretory tissues. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 7. 1st written test - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 8. Root morphology. Modified roots. Root anatomy - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 9. Shoot morphology and anatomy. Shoot types. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 10. Leaf morphology and anatomy. Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis). Leaf venation. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 11. Flower morphology. Inflorescence types. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 12. Fertilisation, embryogenesis, ovule and seed. Fruit types. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 13. 2nd written test - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 14. Taxonomic categories, chemotaxonomic relations, rules of nomenclature. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes


  • 1. Microscopic techniques and preparations (leaf clearing, cross sections, epidermal tissues). Plastids of the plant cell. Inclusions and crystals.
  • 2. Chemical substances of the cell wall (cellulose, lignin). Mucilage content of the cell wall and the cytoplasm. Investigation of vacuolar content (inulin, alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanins).
  • 3. The root and shoot tip; meristematic tissues.
  • 4. Leaf epidermis; cross sections and cleared preparations.
  • 5. Microscopic study of stem cross sections: vascular tissues and mechanical tissues.
  • 6. Ground tissues. Plant secretory systems (schizogenous, lysigenous cavities, laticifers, glandular trichomes, glandular scales, nectaries).
  • 7. 1st written test. Tissue structure of the flower, fruit and seed.
  • 8. Morphological analysis of the root and its modifications.
  • 9. Shoot system types, shoot modifications.
  • 10. Leaf types, leaf arrangement, parts of the leaf. Shape, margin and venation of leaves, leaf modifications.
  • 11. Morphological analysis of the flower: perianth, androecium, gynoecium. Floral formula, floral diagram.
  • 12. Morphological investigation of inflorescences.
  • 13. Fruit morphology: Dry dehiscent and indehiscent fruits.
  • 14. 2nd written test


Reading material

Obligatory literature

Á. Farkas: Pharmacobotany 1, University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2010
N. Papp: Pharmacobotany Practices, University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2011

Literature developed by the Department

Farkas Á., Papp N., Bencsik T., Horváth Gy.: Digital Herbarium and Drug Atlas, electronic learning material, 2014 TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016
Course materials are available at the website of the Department of Pharmacognosy (Educational Materials).


Recommended literature

D.F. Cutler, T. Botha, D.W. Stevenson: Plant Anatomy. An Applied Approach, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008
R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn: Esau?s Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function and Development, 3rd edition, Wiley
A. Fahn: Plant Anatomy, 4th edition

Conditions for acceptance of the semester

Maximum of 15 % absence allowed

Mid-term exams

Students have to pass (min. 60%) two written exams based on lecture materials, and another two written exams based on the practice materials. The exams will be held on the 7th and 13th week of the semester.
For each test, maximum two other chances (B and C chance) will be offered for students who do not pass the exam on the first occassion (A chance).
In laboratory practices students have to take notes and prepare drawings based on microscopic examinations. Students have to show their lab notebook to the practice leader, who acknowledges fulfillment of the practice by his/her signature.
The grades of the 2 written lecture tests and of the 2 written practical tests serve as the basis of the final course grade.

Making up for missed classes

Missed practices can be made up either by joining the other groups or taking extra time at the following lab practice. In all cases, students must make arrangements with their lab instructors in advance.

Exam topics/questions

1.Structure of the plant cell
2.Plastids and inclusions
3. Structure of the cell wall
4. Meristematic tissues
5. Epidermal tissue; stomata
6. Epidermal tissue; trichomes
7. Secondary epidermis
8. Vascular tissues
9. Vascular bundle types
10.Ground tissues: true ground tissues
11.Collenchyma, sclerenchyma
12.Secretory tissues
13.Root morphology
14.Modified roots
15.Root anatomy
16.Shoot morphology
17.Shoot anatomy
18.Shoot types
19.Leaf morphology
20.Leaf anatomy
21.Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis). Leaf venation.
22.Flower morphology
23.Inflorescence types
24.Fertilization, embryogenesis, ovule and seed
25.Fruit types


  • Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • Dr. Papp Nóra

Instructor / tutor of practices and seminars

  • Dr. Purger Dragica