Official data in SubjectManager for the following academic year: 2022-2023

Course director

Number of hours/semester

Lectures: 14 hours

Practices: 28 hours

Seminars: 0 hours

Total of: 42 hours

Subject data

  • Code of subject: OPO-GN2-T
  • 2 Credit
  • Pharmacy
  • Med.-biol. theoretical module and practical skills module
  • spring

OPO-GN1-T completed

Exam course:

Course headcount limitations

min. 3 people – max. 80 people


Pharmacobotany covers all pharmaceutical aspects of botany, including cytology, histology, morphology and taxonomy of plants. Plant systematics discusses the geographical origin of plant species, the possibilities of cultivation and nature conservation. A special emphasis is laid on chemotaxonomic aspects, since the medicinal effect of a plant is often related to its taxonomic classification and chemical characteristics. Practical instruction focuses on the knowledge of medicinal plants, including the confident usage of plant identification keys. Based on their knowledge of morphology and histology, students are required to apply proper anatomical terms, and finally identify plant species (taxa). The thorough knowledge of both general and specific pharmacobotany is a prerequisite of studying pharmacognosy.


  • 1. Algae (Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae), Fungi, Lichenes - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 2. Pteridophyta, Coniferophytina, Cycadophytina. Magnoliidae. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 3. Caryophyllidae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 4. Hamamelididae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 5. Rosidae I. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 6. Rosidae II. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 7. Dilleniidae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 8. Cornidae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 9. Lamiidae I. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 10. Lamiidae II. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 11. Asteridae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 12. Alismatidae. Liliidae. - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 13. Zingiberidae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • 14. Commelinidae, Arecidae - Dr. Farkas Ágnes


  • 1. Fungi: Morphology of Ganoderma lucidum, Fomes fomentarius and Lentinus edodes. Lichenes: Morphological comparison of Cladonia pyxidata and Cetraria islandica.
  • 2. Pteridophyta: Spores and sporangia of Lycopodium clavatum and Equisetum arvense; rhizome of Dryopteris filix-mas.
  • 3. Spermatophyta: Coniferophytina: Inflorescences, needles and wood of Pinus nigra. Angiospermatophytina: Dicotyledonopsida: Magnoliidae: Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia shoot.
  • 4. Ranunculaceae, Helleboraceae. Ficaria root and leaf, Helleborus leaf.
  • 5. Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae, Fumariaceae, Papaver sp. pistil and fruit.
  • 6. Caryophyllidae: Phytolaccaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae. Saponaria officinalis root.
  • 7. Hamamelididae: Fagaceae, Betulaceae, Juglandaceae. Leaf morphology and fruit types of Fagus and Quercus species. Juglans regia fruit.
  • 8. Plant identification practice with identification key.
  • 9. Rosidae I.: Grossulariaceae, Crassulaceae, Rosaceae. Sedum sp. shoot, Rosa canina pseudofruit, Malus domestica nectary, Rosaceae fruit types.
  • 10. Rosidae I.: Fabaceae. Starch grains of Phaseolus vulgaris and Pisum sativum.
  • 11. Rosidae II.: Araliaceae: Morphological features of Hedera helix and Panax ginseng. Apiaceae. Fruit of Carum carvi and Foeniculum vulgare.
  • 12. Rosidae II.: Punicaceae, Lythraceae, Onagraceae, Rutaceae. Hesperidium and shoot of Citrus limon.
  • 13. Rosidae III.: Anacardiaceae, Hippocastanaceae, Geraniaceae, Celastraceae, Rhamnaceae. Pelargonium zonale non-glandular and glandular trichomes.
  • 14. Rosidae III.: Vitaceae, Araliaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae. Shoot of Bryonia alba or Cucumis sativus with bicollateral vascular bundles.
  • 15. Dilleniidae: Brassicaceae, Salicaceae, Tiliaceae, Cannabaceae. Bifid hairs and glandular scales of Humulus lupulus.
  • 16. Dilleniidae: Malvaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, Buxaceae. Urtica dioica stinging hairs. Euphorbiaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Hypericaecae. Laticifers and starch grains of Euphorbia sp., stellate hairs of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Primulaceae.
  • 17. Cornidae: Caprifoliaceae, Valerianaceae, Rubiaceae. Sambucus nigra shoot. Apocynaceae. Asclepiadaceae. Nerium oleander leaf.
  • 18. Plant identification practice.
  • 19. Lamiidae I.: Solanaceae: Solanum tuberosum starch grains. Convolvulaceae. Boraginaceae, Plantaginaceae.
  • 20. Lamiidae I.: Boraginaceae non-glandular trichomes. Scrophulariaceae, Verbenaceae. Verbascum phlomoides hairs.
  • 21. Lamiidae II.: Lamiaceae.
  • 22. Lamiidae II.: Lamiaceae-type glandular hairs on the leaf of Lavandula sp.. Salvia officinalis shoot.
  • 23. Asteridae: Asteraceae
  • 24. Asteridae: Secondary thickening in the stem of Helianthus annuus. Taraxacum officinale rhizome.
  • 25. Monocotyledonopsida: Dioscoreaceae, Convallariaceae, Asparagaceae, Ruscaceae. Convallaria majalis rhizome.
  • 26. Monocotyledonopsida: Alliaceae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae. Root tip and leaf of Allium sp., scale leaves of Allium cepa.
  • 27. Visit to the botanical garden.
  • 28. Visit to the medicinal plant garden.


Reading material

Obligatory literature

Á. Farkas: Pharmacobotany 2. University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2021
N. Papp: Pharmacobotany Practices. University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2011

Literature developed by the Department

Farkas Á., Papp N., Bencsik T., Horváth Gy.: Digital Herbarium and Drug Atlas, electronic learning material, 2014 TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016
Course materials are available at the website of the Department of Pharmacognosy (Educational Materials).


Recommended literature

Z. Yaniv, U. Bachrach (eds.): Handbook of Medicinal Plants, Haworth Press Inc., 2005
WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1. (1999), Vol. 2. (2002)

Conditions for acceptance of the semester

Maximum of 15 % absence allowed

Mid-term exams

Students have to pass (min. 60%) two written exams based on lecture materials. If necessary, students will be provided maximum two extra chances (B and C chance) besides the original exam date (A chance).
In the practices, from the 2nd week onwards, students have to write a short test each week (recognising and characterising 5-5 medicinal plants).

Making up for missed classes

Participation is compulsory in lab practicals; up to 2 absences are allowed. Missed practicals can be made up either by joining the other groups or taking extra time at the following lab practical. In all cases, students must make arrangements with their lab instructors in advance.

Exam topics/questions

Final exam:
Entrance exam:
Preceding the oral exam, 6 medicinal plants (5 herbarium specimens and 1 fresh plant from the medicinal plant garden) should be identified and their brief morphological characterization should be given.
Oral exam:
Following the successful entrance exam, students are required to present their knowledge on 2 topics from the list below. The general characterization of plant families should be followed by the morphological and chemotaxonomic description of the species belonging to the given families.
Exam questions:
1. Algae, Fungi, Lichenes
2. Lycopodiaceae, Equisetaceae, Aspidiaceae, Polypodiaceae
3. Ginkgoaceae, Abietaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, Ephedraceae
4. Myristicaceae, Illiciaceae, Lauraceae, Piperaceae, Aristolochiaceae
5. Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae (Helleboraceae)
6. Papaveraceae, Fumariaceae
7. Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae
8. Hamamelidaceae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae (Corylaceae), Juglandaceae
9. Droseraceae, Rosaceae
10. Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae
11. Myrtaceae, Punicaceae, Lythraceae, Onagraceae
12. Rutaceae, Anacardiaceae
13. Hippocastanaceae, Geraniaceae, Linaceae, Erythroxylaceae
14. Polygalaceae, Krameriaceae, Rhamnaceae, Vitaceae, Loranthaceae
15. Araliaceae, Apiaceae
16. Violaceae, Passifloraceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae
17. Brassicaceae, Salicaceae
18. Tiliaceae, Sterculiaceae, Malvaceae
19. Moraceae, Cannabaceae
20. Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae
21. Elaeagnaceae, Theaceae, Hypericaceae, Primulaceae
22. Aquifoliaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Sambucaceae), Valerianaceae, Ericaceae
23. Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae
24. Apocynaceae, Gentianaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleaceae
25. Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae
26. Boraginaceae, Scrophulariaceae
27. Plantaginaceae, Pedaliaceae, Verbenaceae
28. Lamiaceae
29. Lobeliaceae, Asteraceae (Cichoriaceae)
30. Dioscoreaceae, Convallariaceae, Asparagaceae, Ruscaceae, Agavaceae
31. Asphodelaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Alliaceae
32. Amaryllidaceae, Melanthiaceae, Colchicaceae, Iridaceae, Orchidaceae
33. Zingiberaceae, Bromeliaceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae


  • Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • Dr. Papp Nóra

Instructor / tutor of practices and seminars

  • Dr. Purger Dragica