Official data in SubjectManager for the following academic year: 2022-2023

Course director

Number of hours/semester

Lectures: 0 hours

Practices: 14 hours

Seminars: 0 hours

Total of: 14 hours

Subject data

  • Code of subject: OPO-G1G-T
  • 1 Credit
  • Pharmacy
  • Medical and Health Sciences module
  • autumn


Exam course:

Course headcount limitations

min. 3 people – max. 100 people


Pharmacobotany covers all pharmaceutical aspects of botany, including cytology, histology and morphology of plants. Based on their anatomical and morphological knowledge, students will be able to identify and characterize medicinal plant species. The thorough knowledge of both general and specific pharmacobotany is a prerequisite of studying pharmacognosy.



  • 1. Use of the light microscope. Microscopic techniques and preparations (leaf clearing, cross sections, epidermal peels). Plastids and inclusions of the plant cell. Microscopic examination of cleared leaves and starch grains.
  • 2. Chemical substances (cellulose, lignin) and thickening types of the cell wall. Investigation of vacuolar content (inulin, alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanins). Microscopic examination of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate crystals.
  • 3. The root and shoot tip; meristematic tissues. Microscopic examination of cambium types.
  • 4. Examination of the leaf epidermis and its appendages with light microscope (cross sections, epidermal casts, cleared preparations) and stereo microscope .
  • 5. Microscopic study of the vascular tissue system and mechanical tissues in stem cross sections.
  • 6. Microscopic examination of ground tissues. Plant secretory systems (schizogenous, lysigenous cavities, laticifers, glandular trichomes, glandular scales, nectaries). Study of aerenchyma and nutrient storing gorund tissue.
  • 7. Identification of various plant tissues in microscope slides.
  • 8. Morphological analysis of the root and its modifications. Microscopic examination of the tissue structure of true and modified roots.
  • 9. Shoot system types, shoot modifications. Microscopic examination of the tissue structure of above ground and below ground shoot types.
  • 10. Leaf types, leaf arrangement, parts of the leaf. Shape, margin and venation of leaves, leaf modifications. Study of leaf traits on herbarium specimens. Microscopic analysis of leaf cross sections.
  • 11. Morphological analysis of the flower: perianth, androecium, gynoecium. Floral formula, floral diagram. Microscopic study of flower parts.
  • 12. Morphological investigation of inflorescences. Identification of inflorescence type on herbarium specimens. Microscopic examination of capitulum.
  • 13. Fruit morphology: Dry dehiscent and indehiscent fruits.
  • 14. Fruit morphology: Fleshy fruits, compound fruits and false fruits.


Reading material

Obligatory literature

N. Papp: Pharmacobotany Practices, University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2011

Literature developed by the Department

Farkas Á., Papp N., Bencsik T., Horváth Gy.: Digital Herbarium and Drug Atlas, electronic learning material, 2014 TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016


Á. Farkas: Pharmacobotany 1, University of Pécs, Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pécs, 2010

Recommended literature

D.F. Cutler, T. Botha, D.W. Stevenson: Plant Anatomy. An Applied Approach, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008

Conditions for acceptance of the semester

Maximum of 15 % absence allowed

Mid-term exams

Students have to pass (min. 60%) two written exams based on the practice materials. For each test, maximum two other chances (B and C chance) will be offered for students who do not pass the exam on the first occassion (A chance).
In the practice, students have to take notes and prepare drawings based on microscopic examinations. Students have to show their lab notebook to the practice leader, who acknowledges fulfillment of the practice by his/her signature.
The grades of the 2 written practical tests and the lab notebook serve as the basis of the practical grade.

Making up for missed classes

Participation is compulsory in lab practices; up to 2 absences are allowed. Missed practices can be made up either by joining the other groups or taking extra time at the following lab practice. In all cases, students must make arrangements with their lab instructors in advance.

Exam topics/questions

1. Structure of the plant cell.
2. Plastids and inclusions.
3. Structure of the cell wall.
4. Meristematic tissues.
5. Epidermal tissue; stomata.
6. Trichomes, secondary epidermis.
7. Vascular tissues
8. Vascular bundle types.
9. Ground tissues: parenchyma, collenchyma.
10. Ground tissues: sclerenchyma, secretory tissues.
11. Root morphology and anatomy
12. Modified roots.
13. Shoot morphology and anatomy.
14. Shoot types.
15. Leaf morphology and anatomy.
16. Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis). Leaf venation.
17. Flower morphology.
18. Inflorescence types.
19. Fertilisation, embryogenesis, ovule and seed.
20. Fruit types: dehiscent fruits.
21. Fruit types: indehiscent fruits.
22. Fruit types: compound and aggregate fruits.


Instructor / tutor of practices and seminars

  • Dr. Farkas Ágnes
  • Dr. Filep Rita
  • Dr. Purger Dragica